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[기타] 아인슈타인의 다섯가지 실수
글쓴이 : 芝枰 날짜 : 2018-06-22 (금) 00:02 조회 : 145

아인슈타인은 훌륭한 발견을 하고도 그것에서 비롯된 결과들에 대해서는 부정하는 경우가 많았다. 아래 기사는 그런 부분들을 꼬집은 것이다.

1. 아인슈타인은 일반상대론 방정식에 우주상수를 도입했지만 최대의 실수였다며 우주상수를 철회하였다. 하지만 지금은 관측결과 우주가 팽창한다는 것을 설명하기 위해서는 우주상수가 필요하다.

2. 아인슈타인의 장방정식은 중력렌즈를 예상케한다. 하지만 아인슈타인은 그 효과가 너무 미미하다는 이유로 중력렌즈에 대한 자신의 생각을 철회하였다. 하지만 이것은 굉장히 기술적인 문제이기 때문에 그 당시로써는 어쩔 수 없는 것이라고 기사는 적고 있다.

3. 아인슈타인은 처음에 중력파가 너무 터무니 없다고 생각을 했었다. 중력파가 어떻게 작동하는지 수학적으로 기술하는데 실패했기 때문이었다. 중력파는 존재하지 않는다는 논문을 내려다가 아인슈타인이 한 실수를 다른 과학자가 알아챈 덕분에 논문은 수정되었고, 중력파의 존재를 피력했다.

4. 아인슈타인의 이론은 블랙홀의 존재를 예견하였다. 하지만 아인슈타인은 그런 존재가 실재하리라는 믿음을 갖지 않았다.

5. 광전효과를 발견하여 양자역학의 초석을 다졌음에도 양자역학 자체를 끝까지 인정하지 않았다.


5 things Albert Einstein got totally wrong

Albert Einstein changed the world forever 100 years ago by publishing his theory of general relativity.
Relativity is now a centerpiece of modern physics, the reason GPS satellites and mobile internet exist, and why Einstein is easily the most famous scientist in history.

But a legendary status doesn't mean you're infallible. Einstein made plenty of errors and oversights, and sometimes, he was flat out wrong.

Here are five of Einstein's biggest mistakes explained.

1. A notable error shows up in Einstein's most famous work: Relativity.
His theory of relativity describes gravity, space, and time in math equations - which no one had successfully done before.
But in order to get the math right, Einstein had to create a new constant number (an unchanging value, like 'pi' or 'e') and stick it inside his general relativity equations to balance them.
He called it the "cosmological constant," and it helped the equations account for the unchanging nature of the universe.
But not long after Einstein published his equations, physicists discovered that the universe wasn't constant, but actually expanding all around us at a blistering speed. Oops.
So Einstein abandoned the cosmological constant.
But that was a huge mistake. The equations still needed the cosmological constant.



Scientists now see the cosmological constant as representative of a mysterious force called dark energy, which is causing the universe to expand at a faster and faster clip.

2. Einstein's equations also describe how gravity can bend light.
Fields of gravity around objects warp light waves as they pass through, like a huge cluster of galaxies.
The bigger the object, the more it will bend light rays around it. The effect is called gravitational lensing.
Gravitational lensing is the best way to measure the mass of huge, distant objects. It also magnifies images of really distant objects so that astronomers can observe them from Earth.
Astronomers also use gravitational lensing to map dark matter - an invisible substance that makes up about 85% of the universe's mass. They create the maps by observing how much dark matter bends visible light.
But Einstein thought gravitational lensing would be too small to see. He dismissed the idea as mostly useless, and he didn't bother publishing his findings until a colleague urged him.
It was a serious misjudgment on Einstein's part to dismiss the idea, at least initially, considering how important the technique is today.

3. Einstein's theory of relativity predicted the presence of ripples in spacetime called gravitational waves.
Einstein had already demonstrated that matter can curve space, so it only follows that moving matter around in space should create a wave - the same way dropping a rock in a lake creates ripples.
But ripples in spacetime seemed a little too far-fetched for Einstein. What's more, when he tried to write a mathematical formula to describe how gravity waves work, he couldn't do it.
So Einstein rejected gravitational waves (even though his own theory predicted they exist!). He almost published a paper containing that huge error.
Luckily another scientist spotted his mistake before the paper went to press. Einstein was able to fix the gravitational waves formula and publish the corrected version suggesting that they do exist.
But even though the math suggests gravitational waves are real, we still haven't directly observed them.
A huge manhunt is underway for the elusive waves. There are several gravity wave detectors in the US and abroad, and teams of physicists are hot on the trail.

4. Einstein ran into a similar problem with black holes: His theories predicted their existence, but he couldn't make sense of them.
Unlike gravitational waves, however, he never changed his mind.
We now have plenty of evidence that black holes not only exist, but some grow to millions of times the sun's mass, including one at the center of the Milky Way.

5. Einstein's later ideas were critical in the development of quantum mechanics - a branch of physics that studies the bizarre properties of tiny subatomic particles.
In fact, the research that earned him the Nobel Prize in 1921 (the photoelectric effect) was hugely instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.
But Einstein had major doubts about quantum mechanics. And to his credit, a lot of elements of the theory are downright strange.
Quantum mechanic's bizarre properties suggest particles can be in two states at the same time, and can send information to one another faster than the speed of light.
Even the physicists who study quantum mechanics are the first to tell you that they don't fully understand it.
But we're getting closer and closer to proving that quantum mechanics is real. So Einstein's failure to accept the theory may become his biggest blunder yet.

Despite all these mistakes, Einstein is still regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. After all, you can't revolutionize a field without making a few goofs along the way.




   



 


 

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